What do the scholars of the Din and muftis of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue: what is fard ‘ayn? What things are included in it?
Questioner: Bilal from Leicester, UK
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
Fard ‘ayn is a shar’i (Islamic legal) terminology. It is that which is incumbent upon every sane and mature Muslim. There are many examples of this, like, believing that Allah ﷻ is one, believing in the prophethood and messengership of Sayyiduna Muhammad ﷺ, and truly believing in whatever he ﷺ has brought from Allah ﷻ, is fard ‘ayn upon every Muslim. Following the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and accepting his commandments is fard ‘ayn upon every Muslim. Loving Allah ﷻ and His Messenger ﷺ is fard ‘ayn upon every Muslim.
It is fard ‘ayn upon every Muslim to believe in the Qiyamah (Resurrection), that one day the earth and the sky, and in fact the entire Universe shall perish. This day is known as the Day of Qiyamah. (al-Mu’taqad al-Muntaqad ma’ al-Mu’tamad al-Mustanad, pg. 180)
It is fard ‘ayn upon every sane and mature Muslim male and female to acquire knowledge of the necessities of the Din, i.e. fard (obligatory) and wajib (compulsory). (Bahisht ki Kunjiyan, pg. 56, Fatawa Ridawiyyah)
It is fard ‘ayn to learn that amount of Tajwid (articulation) by which the pronunciation of every (Arabic) letter is distinguishable from that of every other letter. (Fatawa Ridawiyyah, vol. 3, pg. 253)
It is fard ‘ayn upon every mukallaf (accountable Muslim) to memorise one verse of the Noble Qur’an. (Bahar-e Shari’at, part 3, pg. 545)
The daily five prayers and the Friday prayer are fard ‘ayn. (Bahar-e Shari’at, part 4, pg. 762)
Fasting (during the month of Ramadan), like Salah, is fard ‘ayn. Denying its obligation is kufr (disbelief). (Jannati Zewar, pg. 347)
If the disbelievers gather and attack (the Muslims), it is fard ‘ayn to perform jihad (religious struggle) to defend themselves and fight back, so much so that it is fard upon women and slaves too. (Bahar-e Shari’at, part 9, pg. 427)
Bearing witness is a fard kifayah (collective obligation), i.e. if some people do it, others are relieved of its obligation. If only two people are present, then it is fard ‘ayn upon them. It is necessary for them to participate either they be called for making witness or for giving testimony. (Bahar-e Shari’at, part 12, pg. 931)
Apart from this, there are many things that are fard ‘ayn and it is very difficult to include everything in this answer.
واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری
Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri
Translated by the SeekersPath team
Read the original answer in Urdu here – [Q-ID0406] What is fard ‘ayn? What things are included in it?