What do the scholars of the Dīn and muftīs of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue: If someone makes a vow saying that if they were to buy a car and it got put on rent, then they will donate £50 to charity. So, if this actually turns out to be the case, then would he have to donate £50 to charity, and if so, when would he have to give it?
Questioner: Anees from Bolton, England (U.K.)
بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایة الحق والصواب
Yes, absolutely. If a vow is made pending on a certain task which one actually wishes to do, then one will have to fulfil such vow. However, the condition is that the vow is in regards to anything which is among [at least] wājib actions. For example, if so-and-so task of mine gets completed, then I will fast or donate so-and-so amount, etc.
Just as it is stated in Radd al-Muhtār,
“فَإِنْ عَلَّقَهُ بِشَرْطٍ يُرِيدُهُ كَأَنْ قَدِمَ غَائِبِي أَوْ شُفِيَ مَرِيضِي (يُوَفِّي) وُجُوبًا إنْ وُجِدَ الشَّرْطُ”
“If someone made their vow based on a condition which they intend to fulfil, such as if I find my lost item, or if I get better or am cured from my illness, so if the condition is fulfilled, then it is wājib (necessary) to fulfil it [i.e. the promise].”
[al-Durr al-Mukhtār ma’ Radd al-Muhtār, vol. 3, p. 738]
It is stated in Bahār-e-Sharī’at that if someone promises something on a pending matter which they wish to go ahead with, for example, if my son recovers, or he returns from so-and-so foreign country, or if I get a job, then I will keep so-and-so amount of fasts, or I will donate so-and-so amount to charity, then in such case, when the condition is fulfilled [i.e. it actually happens], in other words, the ill person becomes well, or the son returns from the foreign country, or someone finds a job, then it is a must that such person keeps that many fasts or donates that much amount to charity. It cannot be that such person does not do so and gives fidyah [expiation] in its place.
[Bahār-e-Sharī’at, vol. 1, part 9, p. 314]
The charitable donation should be given at the end of the month, and if it has not been given for whatever reason, then it can be given at any time during one’s lifetime.
والله تعالی أعلم ورسوله أعلم صلی الله علیه وآله وسلم
کتبه أبو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء القادري
Answered by al-Muftī Qāsim Ziā al-Qādirī
Translated by Haider Ali
Read the original Urdu answer here: [Q-ID0855] If I complete a certain task, do I need to fulfill the vow I made for it?