What do the scholars of the Din and muftis of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue: what is the ruling about birth control (that which prevents pregnancy)? Is it permissible for one to use condoms or to eat tablets to prevent pregnancy? Also, what are the permissible methods for preventing pregnancy?
Questioner: A sister from England
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
Birth control is impermissible on the basis of fearing lack of sustenance/provisions. As Our Merciful Sustainer has stated in the Holy Qur’aan:
” وَ لَا تَقْتُلُوْا اَوْلَادَکُمْ خَشْیَۃَ اِمْلَاقٍ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُھُمْ وَ اِیَّاکُمْ
Translation: “And do not kill your children, fearing poverty; We shall provide sustenance to them as well as to you.”
[Surah Bani Isra’eel, Verse 31]
Hence it is evident from the above mentioned verse that it is impermissible to prevent pregnancy out of fear of poverty and lack of sustenance.
And when this is NOT the intention, rather, it is due to a necessity, then birth control ispermissible and there is nothing wrong (قباحت) with it.
There are various methods of birth control. Some of them, due to resembling coitus interruptus, are permissible and some are impermissible.
Mentioned below are the methods which are employed nowadays and are permissible:
1) Eating Tablets
2) Having Injection
3) نار پلانٹ (Eating Capsules)
4) Condoms (placing something on top of the male private organ and having intercourse).
Advice: Using Tablets, Capsules, کاپرٹی, ملٹی لوڈ etc, even though they are permitted, however from a medical point of view these may be harmful.
Coitus Interruptus (meaning sexual intercourse in which the penis is withdrawn before ejaculation) and using condom; the intended usage of both are the same i.e. to avoid pregnancy.
Hence, out of necessity, these methods (coitus interruptus and condoms) should be used as these involve the least amount of loss and harm.
Regarding the impermissible methods; it includes all those methods which result in the man or woman losing the ability to produce children indefinitely. The impermissible methods are mentioned below:
1)نس بندی (Vasectomy)
2) نل بندی
3) بچہ دانی نکلوانا (Withdrawal from the womb)
1) Vasectomy – In this method, the channels through which the sperm of the male travel through are cut and sealed off. By doing this, the man no longer has the ability of creating children indefinitely and the man becomes infertile. It is forbidden for a man to do this to himself. Even if he does it in this way i.e. vasectomy by means of castration
As stated in the Blessed Hadith:
The Author of Mishkaat, Walī al-Deen Tabrīzī has related in his book:
’’اِنَّ عُثْمَانَ بْنَ مَظْعُوْنَ اَتَی النبیَّ فَقَالَ اِئْذَنْ لَنَا فِی الْاِخْتِصَائِ فقال رسول اللّٰہ صلی اللّٰہ علیہ وسلم لَیْسَ مِنَّا مَنْ خَصَی وَ لَا اِخْتَصَی”
Translation: On the Authority of Sayyiduna Sa’d bin Mas’ood رضی اللہ عنہ that Uthmaan bin Ma’dhoon presented himself in the court of the Beloved Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم and humbly asked, “O Messenger of Allah, Grant us permission to become eunuchs. The Noble Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم replied: “Whoever has castration done or castrates himself is not from amongst us.”
(مشکوٰۃ المصابیح کتاب الصلوۃ جلد 1 ص 152)
In light of the aforementioned Blessed Hadith we come to know that whoever has a sterilises himself or has it done, as well as castrated oneself or getting castration done are both prohibited.
It is cited in Fataawa Mustafwiyah that Mufti e A’dham Hind Allaamah Mustafaa Raza Khan علیہ رحمۃ الرحمن has mentioned:
There are numerous reasons that it is impermissible and harām for a man to have sterilisation done or for a woman to have an operation. It changes that which Allah has created, and in the light of Qur’aan and Hadith it is classified as impermissible and forbidden.
In the Glorious Qur’aan it states:
” وَلَاٰمُرَنَّہُمْ فَلَیُغَیِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللہِ “
Translation : And Shaytaan (The Devil) said ” And I will definitely order them so they will change Allah’s creation.”
Also it is mentioned in Tafseer Saawi:
“من ذلک تغییر الجسم “
Translation: “Amongst that is changing the body.”
(فتاوی مصطفویہ ج1 ص 531)
2) Tubal ligation/Tubectomy:
This method is in relation to the woman, where in order to prevent the eggs of the woman reaching the womb, which are a cause for the child to be created, the tube to the womb is cut and sealed off. In this manner the woman becomes barren. This act is also forbidden and is such an action which will lead one to the fire of Hell, because in this way, the ability to create a child ceases indefinitely, which is consensually agreed upon as being forbidden.
3) The removal of the womb (hysterectomy):
In this method, the place where the sperm settles is extracted from the abdomen of the woman, to do this is also impermissible.
Mufti Muhammad Waqaar ud Deen رحمۃ اللہ علیہ has stated in وقار الفتاویٰ:
“To have an operation which results in the loss of the ability of becoming pregnant is forbidden and impermissible, and is in the ruling of مثلہ.
مثلہ means to lose/waste any organ/limb/part of the body. This is also wastage of the womb.”
(وقار الفتاویٰ ص 123 جلد3)
واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری
Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri
Translated by Bilal Shabir
Read the original Urdu answer here: [Q-ID0523] What is the Islamic ruling on using contraception?