[Q-ID0408] What is the Islamic ruling on plastic surgery of face, nose & breasts?

QUESTION:

What do the scholars and muftis of the noble Shari’ah say regarding the following matter; what is the ruling regarding: plastic surgery of the nose, surgery of other bodily organs, and breast implantation?

Questioner: Farat from the UK

ANSWER:

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب

Surgery to fix the nose is permissible if the nose has been cut off. Similarly, there is no reprehension in getting a surgery done on the face if it has been burnt.

As far as surgery of the nose is concerned, the fuqahā’ (jurists) have stated that it is permissible even to get a golden nose fixed because infection and decay can gather from a silver nose, just as it is mentioned in al-Durr al-Mukhtār,

وَيَتَّخِذُ أَنْفًا مِنْهُ لِأَنَّ الْفِضَّةَ تُنْتِنُهُ

“An artificial nose made from gold can be implanted as a silver nose becomes putrid.”

[al-Durr al-Mukhtār, vol 2, pg 240]

It is also proven from the following Hadīth which Imām Nasā’ī mentioned, that Sayyidunā ‘Abd al-Rahmān bin Tarfah saw that the nose of his grandfather, Sayyidunā ‘Arfajah bin Asad (may Allāh be pleased with him) had been cut off.

فَاتَّخَذَ أَنْفًا مِنْ فِضَّةٍ، فَأَنْتَنَ عَلَيْهِ فَأَمَرَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَهُ مِنْ ذَهَب

“So he wore a nose made of silver, but it began to rot, so the Prophet ﷺ told him to wear a nose made of gold.”

[Sunan al-Nasā’ī, 5156]

If the artificial nose is made of something other than gold and it does not become putrid, then it is not permissible to get a golden nose fixed. This is not difficult in this advanced day and age. If a nose made of a different material becomes putrid, then it is permissible to use a golden one, just as is mentioned in al-Hidāyah,

أَنَّ الْأَصْلَ فِيهِ التَّحْرِيمُ وَالْإِبَاحَةُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ وَقَدْ انْدَفَعَتْ بِالْفِضَّةِ وَهِيَ الْأَدْنَى فَبَقِيَ الذَّهَبُ عَلَى التَّحْرِيمِ وَالضَّرُورَةُ فِيمَا رُوِيَ لَمْ تَنْدَفِعْ فِي الْأَنْفِ دُونَهُ حَيْثُ أَنْتَنَ

“The original ruling regarding the use of gold is impermissibility. It is permissible only due to need. Since the need is fulfilled by silver and its usage is also easier as compared to gold, the impermissibility of gold will be maintained. In this case of implanting an artificial nose, the need is not fulfilled without the usage of gold, because an artificial nose made of any metal becomes putrid, except for gold.”

[al-Hidāyah, vol 4, pg 455]

The same has been mentioned in Fatāwā Ridawiyyah. See Fatāwā Ridawiyyah, vol. 24, pg. 194.

Getting surgery done merely for the sake of beautification is impermissible. E.g. if a girl’s nose is wide and she gets a surgery done on it in order to make it thin and straight, then this is not permissible. Similarly, anti-ageing treatments are also not permissible. This is unnecessarily changing the creation of Allāh ﷻ, and is impermissible.

It is mentioned in the Noble Qur’ān,

{وَلَاٰمُرَنَّہُمْ فَلَیُغَیِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللہِ ؕ}

{…and I will definitely order them so they will change the creation of Allāh…}

[al-Nisā’, 119]

It is mentioned in Tafsīr al-Sāwī in the explanation of this verse,

من ذلک تغییر الجسم

“This includes alteration of the body.”

Women who alter their facial looks just for the sake of beautification, changing the creation of Allāh, have been cursed in Hadīth, just as it is stated in Bukhārī,

قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِلَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْوَاشِمَاتِ وَالْمُتَنَمِّصَاتِ وَالْمُتَفَلِّجَاتِ لِلْحُسْنِ الْمُغَيِّرَاتِ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى، مَالِي لَا أَلْعَنُ مَنْ لَعَنَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

“Sayyidunā Ibn Mas’ūd (may Allāh be pleased with him) said, ‘Allāh has cursed those women who practice tattooing and those women who have themselves tattooed, and those women who get their hair removed from their eyebrows and faces (except the beard and the moustache), and those who make artificial spaces between their teeth for beauty; may those be cursed who change the creation of Allāh. Why should I also not curse such people whom the Noble Messenger of Allāh ﷺ has cursed?’”

[Sahīh al-Bukhārī, no 5937]

Breast implantation is done for beautification and to make oneself attractive. It is not permissible to do it, even if the husband tells her to do it.

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ has stated,

لَا طَاعَةَ لِمَخْلُوقٍ فِي مَعْصِيَةِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ

“There is no obedience to the creation in disobedience to Allāh ﷻ.”

[Musnad Ahmad, no 1095]

It should not be said that the age and conditions have changed and hence a woman must be allowed to get breast implantation done due to insistence from her husband. Adornment cannot create dispensations in legally impermissible acts.

Just as Sayyidī A’lā Hazrat, the Imām of the Ahl al-Sunnah, Imām Ahmad Ridā Khān (may Allāh have mercy upon him) states that adornment and useless matters not being able to create dispensations in legally impermissible acts is very clear. The sufficient proof for this is the original ruling which is preferred. Otherwise, legal ruling will become a play of the lowly desires of the self.

[Fatāwā Ridawiyyah, vol 21, pg 208]

واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری

Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri
Translated by the SeekersPath team

Read the original answer in Urdu here – [Q-ID0408] What is the Islamic ruling on plastic surgery of face, nose & breasts?

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