What do the scholars and muftis of the noble Shari’ah say regarding the following matter; what is the ruling regarding: plastic surgery of the nose, surgery of other bodily organs, and breast implantation?
Questioner: Farat from the UK
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
Surgery to fix the nose is permissible if the nose has been cut off. Similarly, there is no reprehension in getting a surgery done on the face if it has burnt.
As far as surgery of the nose is concerned, the fuqaha (jurists) have stated that it is permissible even to get a golden nose fixed because putrefaction might take place in a silver nose.
It is mentioned in al-Durr al-mukhtar:
وَيَتَّخِذُ أَنْفًا مِنْهُ لِأَنَّ الْفِضَّةَ تُنْتِنُهُ
Translation: “An artificial nose made from gold can be implanted as a silver nose becomes putrid.” [al-Durr al-mukhtar, vol. 2, pg. 240]
It is also proven from the following hadith:
فَاتَّخَذَ أَنْفًا مِنْ فِضَّةٍ، فَأَنْتَنَ عَلَيْهِ فَأَمَرَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَهُ مِنْ ذَهَب
It was narrated from ‘Arfajah bin As’ad that his nose was cut off at the battle of Al-Kulab during the Jahiliyyah, so he wore a nose made of silver, but it began to rot, so the Prophet ﷺ told him to wear a nose made of gold. [Sunan al-Nasa’i, hadith no. 5156]
If the artificial nose is made of something other than gold and it does not become putrid, then it is not permissible to get a golden nose fixed. This is not difficult in this advanced age. If a nose made of a different material becomes putrid, then it is permissible to use a golden one.
It is mentioned in al-Hidaya:
أَنَّ الْأَصْلَ فِيهِ التَّحْرِيمُ وَالْإِبَاحَةُ لِلضَّرُورَةِ وَقَدْ انْدَفَعَتْ بِالْفِضَّةِ وَهِيَ الْأَدْنَى فَبَقِيَ الذَّهَبُ عَلَى التَّحْرِيمِ وَالضَّرُورَةُ فِيمَا رُوِيَ لَمْ تَنْدَفِعْ فِي الْأَنْفِ دُونَهُ حَيْثُ أَنْتَنَ
Translation: “The original ruling regarding the use of gold is impermissibility. It is permissible only due to need. Since the need is fulfilled by silver and its usage is also easier as compared to gold, the impermissibility of gold will be maintained. In this case of implanting an artificial nose, the need is not fulfilled without the usage of gold, because an artificial nose made of any metal becomes putrid, except for gold.” [al-Hidaya, vol. 4, pg. 455]
The same has been mentioned in Fatawa Ridawiyyah. See Fatawa Ridawiyyah, vol. 24, pg. 194.
Getting a surgery done merely for the sake of beautification is impermissible. E.g. if a girl’s nose is wide and she gets a surgery done on it in order to make it thin and straight, then this is not permissible. Similarly, anti-ageing treatments are also not permissible. This is unnecessarily changing the creation of Allah ﷻ, and is impermissible.
It is mentioned in the Noble Qur’an:
وَلَاٰمُرَنَّہُمْ فَلَیُغَیِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللہِ ؕ
Translation: “…and I will command them so they will change the creation of Allah…” [al-Nisa’, 119]
It is mentioned in Tafsir al-Sawi in the explanation of this verse:
من ذلک تغییر الجسم
Translation: “This includes alteration of the body.”
Women who alter their facial looks just for the sake of beautification have been cursed in the hadith.
Ibn Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him) said, “Allah has cursed those women who practice tattooing and those women who have themselves tattooed, and those women who get their hair removed from their eyebrows and faces (except the beard and the moustache), and those who make artificial spaces between their teeth for beauty, whereby they change Allah’s creation.” A woman started to argue with him, saying, “What is all this?” He replied, “Why should I not curse those whom the Messenger of Allah ﷺ cursed and who are cursed in Allah’s Book? Allah, the Exalted, has said in His Book: ‘And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it).” (59:7) [Sahih al-Bukhari]
Breast implantation is done for beautification and to make oneself attractive. It is not permissible to do it even if the husband tells her to do it.
The Messenger of Allah ﷺ has stated:
لَا طَاعَةَ لِمَخْلُوقٍ فِي مَعْصِيَةِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ
Translation: “There is no obedience to the creation in disobedience to Allah ﷻ” [Musnad Ahmad, hadith no. 1095]
It should not be said that the age and conditions have changed and hence a woman must be allowed to get breast implantation done due to insistence from her husband. Adornment cannot create dispensations in the legally impermissible acts.
Imam Ahmad Rida Khan (may Allah have mercy upon him) states: “Adornments and useless matters not being able to create dispensations in legally impermissible acts is very clear. The sufficient proof for this is the original ruling which is preferred. Otherwise, legal ruling will become a play of the lowly desires of the self.” [Fatawa Ridawiyyah, vol. 21, pg. 208]
واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری
Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri
Translated by the SeekersPath team
Read the original answer in Urdu here – [Q-ID0408] What is the Islamic ruling on plastic surgery of face, nose & breasts?