[Q-ID0346] What are the legally valid excuses of not fasting?

QUESTION:

What do the scholars of the Din and muftis of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue: What are the legally valid excuses of not fasting?

Questioner: Brother from UK

ANSWER:

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب

There are some excuses due to which there is permissibility of not fasting during Ramadān. It is obligatory to compensate for the missed fasts once the excuse is no longer there. However, there will be no sin for missing the fasts. The legally valid excuses are as follows:

1. Travelling: A traveller has the authority to either fast or to not fast. If the traveller and his companion are not caused any harm due to fasting, then it is better to fast whilst travelling. If there is harm to both of them or any one from them, then it is better to not fast.

[al-Durr al-Mukhtār, vol 3, pg 403-405]

A distance of 57.5 miles (92km approx.) is legally considered as travel. Whoever intends to travel this distance and leaves the inhabitation of his village/town/city is legally considered a traveller. He is permitted to miss the fast and compensate later.

[Summarised from Fatāwā Ridawiyyah, vol 8, pg 270]

Read more about this here: [Q-ID0192] When is a traveller excused from Fasting? What if he wrongly missed his Fast?

2. Pregnancy: If a pregnant or breastfeeding woman rightly fears that either she or her child will die (due to fasting), then she is permitted to not fast for that period. Whether the breastfeeding woman be the mother of the child or a midwife who has taken up the job of breastfeeding by choice.

[al-Durr al-Mukhtār, vol 3, pg 403]

3. Hunger and thirst: If one rightly fears death or mental illness due to hunger and thirst, then one is permitted to not fast.

[al-Durr al-Mukhtār, vol 3, pg 402]

4. Illness: If one who is ill has the probability of an increase in his illness or a healthy person has the probability of falling sick, then they are permitted to not fast on that day (and compensate for it later).

[al-Durr al-Mukhtār, vol 3, pg 403]

5. Menstruation and post-partum bleeding: Offering Salāh and fasting during menstruation or post-partum bleeding is harām (prohibited). Salāh and fasting is not valid in such state.

[Bahār-e Sharī’at, part 2, pg 88-89]

6. Oldness: An old person whose health is deteriorating day by day and there is no hope of him retaining the power to fast. Such a person is permitted to not fast. For every missed fast, he must pay the amount of Sadaqah Fitr (1.92kg of wheat or its flour or its equivalent amount) to the poor.

[al-Durr al-Mukhtaā, vol 3, pg 410]

واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری

Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri

Translated by the SeekersPath Team

Read the original Urdu answer here – [Q-ID0346] What are the legally valid excuses of not fasting?

Also see:

[Q-ID0479] I can’t Fast due to arthritis, what should I do?

[Q-ID0477] I can’t Fast due to Diabetes, do I give fidyah?

[Q-ID0349] I have Diabetes & receive insulin injections – do I have to fast?

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