What do the scholars of the Din and muftis of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue: Is a person suffering from gum disease with profuse bleeding allowed to pay fidya [ransom] for his fasts? When does a fast break due to gum bleeding?
Questioner: Rahim from UK
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
Paying fidya of fasting is only for a shaykh fani (such an old person who does not have the strength to fast). Whereas, people who are ill or have been excused are commanded by Allah ﷻ to observe their missed fasts on days other than Ramadan.
Allah ﷻ states:
فَعِدَّۃٌ مِّنْ اَیَّامٍ اُخَرَؕ یُرِیۡدُ اللہُ بِکُمُ الْیُسْرَ وَلَا یُرِیۡدُ بِکُمُ الْعُسْرَ۫
Translation: “… should make up for the lost days by fasting on other days later. Allah wants ease for you, not hardship.”
[Surah al-Baqarah: 185]
If it is possible to stop gum bleeding through medicine, etc., it should be done, and the person must fast. Thousands of fasts in other days do not equal fasting in Ramadan. The gum condition may even be rectified due to the blessing in fasting. Moreover, fasting is the guarantor of good health. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ stated:
صُوْ مُوْ ا تَصِحُّوا
Translation: “Fast and you will be healthy.”
[al-Durr al-Manthur, vol. 1, pg. 440]
The fast breaks due to gum bleeding when blood leaves the gum and descends down the throat. The fast will break if: (1) blood is greater than or equal to saliva, (2) blood is lesser than saliva but its taste can be felt in the throat. The fast does not break if blood is lesser than saliva and its taste cannot be felt in the throat.
It is stated in al-Durr al-Mukhtar:
خَرَجَ الدَّمُ مِنْ بَيْنِ أَسْنَانِهِ وَدَخَلَ حَلْقَهُ يَعْنِي وَلَمْ يَصِلْ إلَى جَوْفِهِ أَمَّا إذَا وَصَلَ فَإِنْ غَلَبَ الدَّمُ أَوْ تَسَاوَيَا فَسَدَ وَإِلَّا لَا، إلَّا إذَا وَجَدَ طَعْمَهُ
Translation: “If blood oozes out from the teeth, enters the throat and does not reach the stomach, then the fast does not break. If it reaches the stomach and its quantity was greater than or equal to that of, then the fast breaks. The fast also breaks if its quantity was less than that of saliva but its taste was felt in the throat, (otherwise not).”
[al-Durr al-Mukhtar, vol. 3, pg. 422]
واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری
Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadiri
Translated by Haider Ali
Read the original Urdu answer here: [Q-ID0706] My gums are continuously bleeding, will my Fast be valid or do I pay Fidya?