What do the scholars noble Shari’ah say regarding the following matter; what is qurbani, who must give it, what must be sacrificed and is it true we cannot cut our nails or trim our hair?
Questioner: A brother from UK
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
WHAT IS QURBANI?
Qurbani is the sacrifice made during the Days of Sacrifice (Ayyaam-un-Nahr) from Fajr of Eid-ul-Adha, 10th Dhul Hijjah until the sunset on 12th Dhul Hijjah. It is Mustahabb (recommended) to give Qurbani on the first day.
WHO MUST GIVE QURBANI?
Qurbani is wajib (necessary) upon every:
(4) who is not a traveller,
(5) who owns wealth that reaches the Nisaab which is approximately £275 [at today’s rate 12/07/2020] in the UK (whether that be in gold, silver, savings, cash, stock etc). Also if you have items that are not from your Haajat-e-Asaliyyah (basic needs) these items must also be considered when calculating your wealth. (More details on what Haajat-e-Asaliyyah is will be added soon)
(6) and who has reached the first Day of Eid-ul-Adha.
A wife who fulfils the above conditions must pay for herself but children not at the age of responsibility do not have to. If a man gives Qurbani on behalf of his wife or his mature children then for it to be valid he must give it with their permission. Their Qurbani will not be valid if he gives it without their permission.
WHAT IS THE AGE OF RESPONSIBILITY?
Girls and boys must give Qurbani if they fulfil the above conditions and if they show signs of maturity. Every person aged 15 (according to the lunar calendar) must give Qurbani if the above conditions are met regardless of showing signs of maturity or not because at 15 they are classed as mature Islamically for commands and prohibitions of the Shari’ah.
The age for maturity is calculated in Islamic years. Bear in mind that Islamic lunar years are approximately 10 days shorter than Christian solar years and this must be taken into account.
Hence if for example Zayd turned 15 on 10th July 2017 then Islamically he would have been 15 approximately 150 days before this on 10th February 2017. This is a rough estimation. We should instead make a note of our Islamic birthday and work out our age in Islamic years by this.
WHAT MUST BE GIVEN FOR SACRIFICE?
For Qurbani it is wajib (necessary) to sacrifice one goat or sheep, or a seventh of a camel or cow. One goat or sheep counts for one person’s obligation and one camel or cow counts for seven peoples’ obligation.
WHEN DOES ONE AVOID CLIPPING NAILS AND CUTTING HAIR?
The Beloved Prophet صلى الله تعالى عليه وآله وسلم said,
“Whoever intends doing Qurbani should avoid clipping his nails or cutting his hair for the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah.” [Sunan an-Nisa’i 4362]
This is mustahabb (recommended) and not wajib for the one who will be giving Qurbani; so if someone does clip his or her nails or cuts their hair there will not be any wrongdoing and the Qurbani will still be valid. After the Qurbani has been given one may clip nails and cut hair.
It is mustahabb though not wajib (necessary) to split one’s Qurbani into three parts and give one third to the poor as Sadaqa (charity), one third to your relatives and one third for yourself and family. If one has a lot of children and a large family then all the meat can be kept for oneself and if one wishes it can give all be given as Sadaqa (charity).
In the UK, 1st Dhul Hijjah is expected to be on Monday 13th August so those intending to give Qurbani ought to clip nails and cut hair before sunset on Sunday 12th August. [These dates were for 2018].
Allah knows best.
Answered by Mawlana Shahid Ali