What do the scholars of the Din and muftis of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue, it permissible for a fasting individual to donate blood to a patient? Will giving blood invalidate the fast?
Questioner: Kamal from Malaysia
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
If a non-fasiq (practicing) and experienced Muslim doctor holds the view that in the case of blood not being given, the patient’s life is at risk or there is fear of the illness being prolonged, then in such a case it would be permissible to give blood with the intention of saving a Muslim’s life. However, this is conditional upon the blood donor not incurring any repercussions as a result. Moreover, giving blood whilst fasting will not invalidate the fast, as in most cases the fast will only break if something enters the body, as opposed to something leaving the body. In certain circumstances, the discharge of semen and vomiting are an exception to this rule.
It is mentioned in Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah:
الْفِطْرُ مِمَّا دَخَلَ وَلَيْسَ مِمَّا يَخْرُجُ
‘The fast will break because of something entering the body, not because of something discharged from it’.
( مصنف ابن ابي شيبه ، رقم الحديث 9319، مکتبۃ الرشد الریاض )
For blood to leave the body is akin to cupping, and this is something which does not invalidate the fast. It is stated in Jami Al-Tirmizi, that the Prophet صلى الله تعالى عليه و سلم said:
” ثَلَاثٌ لَا يُفْطِرْنَ الصَّائِمَ: الحِجَامَةُ، وَالقَيْءُ، وَالِاحْتِلَامُ “
‘Three things do not invalidate the fast: cupping, vomiting, and nocturnal emission’.
(719جامع الترمذی، رقم الحدیث،)
Furthermore, the following narration is mentioned in Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah and Al-Sunnan Al-Kubra:
أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ احْتَجَمَ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ
‘The Messenger of Allah صلى الله تعالى عليه و سلم would have cupping done whilst fasting’.
(السنن الکبریٰ رقم الحدیث 8298) ( مصنف ابن ابي شيبه رقم الحديث 9315، مکتبۃ الرشد الریاض )
Also relating to this topic, it is mentioned in Al-Tahtawi’s footnotes on Maraq Al-Flaah:
أو احتجم لم يفسد
‘…or to have cupping done will not invalidate the fast’.
(حاشیةالطحطاوى على مراقي الفلاح ،ج 1 ص 659,660 ،دار الكتب العلمية بيروت)
Nevertheless, it is makruh (disliked) for a fasting individual to donate blood if he knows that this will weaken his body to such an extent, that it will become difficult to complete the fast.
It is stated in Fatawa Alamgeeri:
وَلَا بَأْسَ بِالْحِجَامَةِ إنْ أَمِنَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ الضَّعْفَ أَمَّا إذَا خَافَ فَإِنَّهُ يُكْرَهُ وَيَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يُؤَخِّرَ إلَى وَقْتِ الْغُرُوبِ
If a person don’t feel any weakness as a result of cupping then there is nothing wrong to having cupping in the state of fasting and if he he had fear of weakness then its makrooh(disliked)to having cupping whilst fasting and he should delay until time of sunset.
Allah knows best
Answered by Abu Hanzalah Khalid Tasneem Al-Madani
Translated by Atta ul Haq
Verified by: Mufti Atta Muhammad Mushahidi (Head of Dar ul Ifta Hashmat ul Raza)
Read the original answer in Urdu here: [Q-ID0490] Can I donate blood whilst fasting Will it nullify my Fast or not?