What do the scholars and muftis of the noble Shari’ah say regarding the following matter; what is ISIS and what is the shari’i (legal) verdict upon them? How do we recognise that they are from the Khawarij (renegades)? Kindly mention some of their signs.
Questioner: Brother from UK
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
As far as my knowledge goes, the ISIS are a group of the Khawarij, which is a misguided sect. The first ever group of the Khawarij appeared during the reign of Sayyiduna ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). They labelled the Sahaba (companions) of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ as kafir (infidel) and mushrik (polytheist). In this age, this group, leaving aside (the real) disbelievers and polytheists, has declared Muslims as disbelievers and polytheists. They declare the lives and properties of Muslims to be halal (lawful). Massacring Muslim women and children is their sign. Similar to the Wahhabis, aggravating the Muslims by destroying the shrines of the Prophets and Friends of Allah, is from their aims. Strangely, the Khawarij consider these crimes as jihad, thus being proficient in attempts to malign Islam. The Taliban and other terrorist groups also believe in the same ideology and commit similar atrocities. The legal verdict regarding them is that the Islamic ruler must execute them, thus saving the world from mischief. Causing mischief in the world is their primary aim.
Allah states regarding such people:
وَیُفْسِدُوۡنَ فِی الۡاَرْضِ ۙ اُولٰٓئِکَ لَہُمُ اللَّعْنَۃُ وَلَہُمْ سُوۡٓءُ الدَّارِ
Translation: “…and spread turmoil in the earth – their share is only the curse and their destiny is the wretched abode.” (Surah al-Ra’d, 25)
Imam Qurtubi states in the exegesis of this verse:
وقال سعد بن ابی وقاص : واللہ الذی لاالہ الا ھو، انھم الحروریہ
Translation: “Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas said, ‘By Allah, whom there is no god except Him, they are the Haruriyyah (a group of the Khawarij).”
Their destiny in the afterlife being the hellfire is understood from the above verse. In this world, the ruling is that the Islamic ruler must execute each one of them in order to end mischief on the earth.
اِنَّمَا جَزٰٓؤُا الَّذِیۡنَ یُحَارِبُوۡنَ اللہَ وَرَسُوۡلَہٗ وَیَسْعَوْنَ فِی الۡاَرْضِ فَسَادًا اَنۡ یُّقَتَّلُوۡۤا اَوْ یُصَلَّبُوۡۤا اَوْ تُقَطَّعَ اَیۡدِیۡہِمْ وَ اَرْجُلُہُمۡ مِّنْ خِلٰفٍ اَوْ یُنۡفَوْا مِنَ الۡاَرْضِ ؕ ذٰلِکَ لَہُمْ خِزْیٌ فِی الدُّنْیَا وَلَہُمْ فِی الۡاٰخِرَۃِ عَذَابٌ عَظِیۡمٌ
Translation: “The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and His Noble Messenger and cause turmoil in the land is that they be all be killed or crucified, or their hands and feet cut off from alternate sides, or they be banished far away from the land; this is their degradation in the world, and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment.” (Surah al-Ma’idah, 33)
Signs: The signs of the Khawarij that have been mentioned in the traditions of the Prophet ﷺ are found among the modern-day terrorist groups. Some of them are: they will be young, their intellects will be defective, their words will be good, but their deeds will be the worst.
The one informed of the unseen matters, the leader of the two worlds by Allah’s leave, the Holy Prophet ﷺ stated:
سَيَخْرُجُ فِي آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ قَوْمٌ أَحْدَاثُ الْأَسْنَانِ، سُفَهَاءُ الْأَحْلَامِ، يَقُولُونَ مِنْ خَيْرِ قَوْلِ الْبَرِيَّةِ، يَقْرَءُونَ الْقُرْآنَ لَا يُجَاوِزُ حَنَاجِرَهُمْ، يَمْرُقُونَ مِنَ الدِّينِ كَمَا يَمْرُقُ السَّهْمُ مِنَ الرَّمِيَّةِ، فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُوهُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ، فَإِنَّ فِي قَتْلِهِمْ أَجْرًا، لِمَنْ قَتَلَهُمْ عِنْدَ اللهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ
Translation: “There would arise at the end of the age a people who would be young in age and immature in thought, but they would talk (in such a manner) as if their words are the best among the creatures. They would recite the Qur’an, but it would not go beyond their throats, and they would pass through the religion as an arrow goes through the prey. So when you meet them, kill them, for in their killing you would get a reward with Allah on the Day of Judgement.” (Sahih Muslim, hadith no. 1066)
They are also described using the following terms:
Translation: “having a thick beard”, and
Translation: “wearing a very high lower garment” (Sahih al-Bukhari, hadith no. 4094; Sahih Muslim, hadith no. 1064)
It is also stated:
لَا يَزَالُوْنَ يَخْرُجُوْنَ حَتّٰی يَخْرُجَ آخِرُهُمْ مَعَ الْمَسِيْحِ الدَّجَّالِ
Translation: “They will not cease to appear until the last of them comes with al-Masih al-Dajjal (the Antichrist).” (Sunan Nasa’i, hadith no. 4103)
It is narrated in Bukhari and Muslim:
يَقْتُلُوْنَ أَهْلَ الإِسْلَامِ وَيَدْعُوْنَ أَهْلَ الْأَوْثَانِ
Translation: “They will kill the Muslims and leave the idol-worshippers alone.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, hadith no. 6930; Sahih Muslim, hadith no. 1064)
It is further stated:
يَطْعَنُوْنَ عَلٰی أُمَرَائِهِمْ وَيَشْهَدُوْنَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالضَّلَالَةِ
Translation: “They will blame the rulers and declare them as misguided.” (Ibn Abi ‘Asim in al-Sunnah, hadith no. 934; Majma’ al-Zawaid, 6/228)
Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar stated:
ينْطَلِقُوْنَ إِلَی آيَاتٍ نَزَلَتْ فِي الْکُفَّارِ فَيَجْعَلُوْهَا عَلَی الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
Translation: “Verily, they take verses that were revealed about unbelievers and apply them to the believers.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, hadith no. 2539)
واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری
Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri
Translated by the SeekersPath team
Read the original answer in Urdu here – [Q-ID0422] Who are ISIS and how do we recognise them?