What do the scholars of the Din and muftis of the Sacred Law state regarding the following issue: upon whom is the Zakaat obligatory, please elucidate its conditions in detail along with the commodities on which the Zakaat is obligatory? If more wealth is added during the same year, will the Zakaat still be obligatory or is it necessary for another year to pass over it? What is the amount of Zakaat? Will one become a sinner by failing to pay Zakaat immediately after the year has passed?
Questioner: Brother from UK
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب بعون الملک الوھاب اللھم ھدایۃ الحق والصواب
Conditions for the Zakaat to become obligatory are that the person is:
- In possession of the wealth of Nisab which must be over and above the necessities and debts
- Passing of a year over it is also a condition
As Allamah Abul Barakaat Abdullah ibn Ahmed Nasafi (D. 710 A.H.) – may Allah shower mercy upon him – has stated:
شرط وجوبھا العقل والبلوغ والإسلام والحريۃ وملک نصاب حولي فارغ عن الدين وحاجتہ الأصليۃ نام ولو تقديراً۔
[Kanz al-Daqāiq ma’a al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, Book of Zakah, Vol. 2, p. 353-355]
The meaning of possessing the wealth of Nisab is that the person either owns 7.5 Tolas gold or 52.5 Tolas silver (612.15 grams), or money equivalent to the value or business goods of the value or goods of that value aside from the necessities.
[Bahare Shari’at Vol. 1, Part 5, p. 902-905]
If one possesses the Nisab but on the other hand, he is in great debt that will break the Nisab after its payment then Zakaat is not obligatory.
One who possesses the Nisab and then somewhere in the middle some more wealth of the same nature was added to it then the newly added value will not wait for a year but when the existing wealth will complete the cycle of a year the Zakaat of the added wealth will also be applicable at the same time.
It has been stated in Bahare Shari’at:
“The one who possesses the Nisab and then somewhere in the middle some more wealth of the same nature was added to it then the newly added value will not wait for a year but the completion of the existing wealth will be considered as the completion of newly added wealth to the yearly cycle, even if was added just a minute ago, whether it was earned through the existing wealth or received in inheritance or through any other lawful means but if it was of a different nature e.g. he previously owned camels and now he received goats then the entire new year will be applicable to it.
[Bahare Shari’at Vol. 1, Part 5, issue No. 43, p. 884]
For the Zakaat to become obligatory on the wealth, that wealth has to be of a potentially growing nature, whether the growth is apparent or in essence; which is of three types:
- The growth is earned through trade
- Through breeding as it happens with the cattles
- The wealth has the growing value in itself; such as gold and silver etc.
From this, we come to know that Zakaat is on three types of commodities:
- Gold and Silver (Currencies also fall in this category provided they have not been discontinued)
- Business goods
[Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, Book of Zakaat Vol. 1, p. 174]
It is also necessary for the yearly cycle to pass in order for the Zakaat to become obligatory on the wealth. The cycle of Nisab will start from that point of time and then for as long as the person remains as a possessor of Nisab, the Zakaat will continue to become obligatory at the very point of time where the cycle had begun.
[Fatawah Ridawiyyah Vol. 10, p. 202]
For example, if Zaid received 7.5 Tolas gold or 52.5 Tolas silver, or money or business goods as their value at 12 pm on 12 Rabee’ al-Awwal i.e. on Meeladun Nabi – may Allah send peace and blessings upon him – and maintains to keep the Nisab till the second year on the same time and date, the payment of its Zakaat will be obligatory upon him. If he delays in the payment without a valid Shar’i excuse, he will become a sinner.
[Fatawah Ridawiyyah Vol. 10, p. 202]
As it has been mentioned in Fatawah Ridawiyyah that delaying after the yearly cycle is not permissible at all, he will become a sinner as he delays.
[Fatawa Amjadiyyah Vol. 1, p. 378]
واللہ تعالی اعلم ورسولہ اعلم صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم
کتبہ ابو الحسن محمد قاسم ضیاء قادری
Answered by Mufti Qasim Zia al-Qadri
Translated by Musjidul Haq Research Department ( www.musjidulhaq.com )
Read the original Urdu answer here: [Q-ID0516] Who has to pay Zakah Is it payable only on that wealth we have held for year Please explain.